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Cu-Sn alloy has very small volume shrinkage (linear shrinkage is 1.45%-1.5%), so it is easy to produce complex castings with accurate size requirements and crafts with clear patterns.Elements such as zinc, lead and phosphorus are generally added to cast tin bronze.Phosphate has high hardness, wear-resisting and good abrasiveness. In wear-resisting tin bronze, phosphorus content can be as high as 1.2%.Zinc can improve the fluidity of the alloy and reduce the reverse segregation tendency of tin bronze.Lead significantly improves the wear resistance and machinability of the alloy.Cast tin bronze for wear and corrosion resistant parts.
(1) Tin-phosphor bronze.Phosphorous is a good deoxidizer for copper alloy, which can increase the fluidity of the alloy, improve the technological and mechanical properties of tin bronze, but increase the degree of reverse segregation.The limit solubility of phosphorus in tin bronze is 0.15%, and the formation of α+δ+Cu3P ternary eutectic will be formed when too much, and the melting point is 628℃. It is easy to produce hot brittleness when hot rolling, and can only be cold working.Therefore, the phosphorus content in wrought tin bronze should not be more than 0.5%, and the phosphorus content should be less than 0.25% during hot working.Phosphorus-containing tin bronze is a famous elastic material. It is necessary to control the grain size before cold working and the low temperature annealing after processing.The strength, elastic modulus and fatigue strength of fine grain processed materials are higher than those of coarse grain processed materials, but the plasticity is lower.After annealing at 200 ~ 260℃ for 1 ~ 2h, the strength, plasticity, elastic limit and elastic modulus of the cold-worked material can be further improved, and the stability of elasticity can also be increased.
(2) tin-zinc bronze.Zinc is dissolved in copper-tin alloy in large quantities, and the amount of zinc added in wrought tin bronze is generally less than 4%.Zinc can improve the fluidity of the alloy, reduce the crystallization temperature range and reduce reverse segregation.
(3) tin-zinc-lead bronze.Lead is actually insoluble in the copper-tin alloy and is distributed in the interdendrite as a single phase black inclusions.Lead is not easily distributed evenly in ingots, and a small amount of nickel is usually added to improve the distribution and refine the microstructure.Lead reduces the friction coefficient of tin bronze, improves the wear resistance and machinability, but slightly reduces the mechanical properties.3% ~ 5% zinc is often added to the copper-tin-lead alloy to improve its mechanical properties.The addition of 0.02%-0.1% zirconium or 0.02%-0.1% boron, especially the addition of 0.02%-0.2% rare-earth elements, can refine the lead particles and make them evenly distributed, so as to improve the microstructure, casting and mechanical properties of lead-containing tin bronze